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### Overview of progression in Year 1

### Number and place value

During the Foundation Stage, children counted and estimated groups of up to 10 objects. In Year 1, children extend their use of counting numbers to at least 100. They develop recognition of patterns in the number system (including odd and even numbers) by counting in ones, twos, fives and tens. Children use first, second, third for example when ordering items.

Children do not need to recognise the place value of each digit in a two-digit number as they will do this in Year 2. However, they should understand that they can tell whether a number is larger than another by looking at the first digit as well as the second digit.

### Addition and subtraction

During the Foundation Stage, children related addition to combining two groups and subtraction to taking away when doing practical activities. In Year 1, children use mathematical statements to record addition and subtraction. They read, interpret and write the symbols +, – and =.

Through practice of addition and subtraction, children learn the number trios for numbers to 20 (8 + 5 = 13, 13 – 8 = 5, 13 – 5 = 8). They use different strategies to help them derive number facts, such as adding numbers in any order, or finding a difference by counting up.

### Multiplication and division

In Year 1, children are introduced to the concepts of multiplication and division, although they will not use the standard signs (× and ÷) until Year 2. In practical activities, using arrays and physical objects such as blocks, children solve multiplication and division problems using small quantities. With support, children investigate the links between arrays, number patterns and their experience of counting in twos, fives and tens.

### Fractions

Children learn to identify halves and quarters by solving practical problems – for example, finding half of a set of ten blocks or a quarter of a square. They learn that the concepts of a half and a quarter apply to objects and quantities as well as to shapes. They link the idea of halves and quarters back to the concepts of sharing and grouping, which they use in their work on multiplication and division. They will build on this in Year 2 when they learn to write simple fractions.

### Measurement

In Year 1, children begin to use some common standard units, including measuring objects using rulers, weighing scales and jugs. They accurately use comparative language for length, weight, volume and time, such as longer/shorter, heavier than/lighter than, more/less, and quicker/slower.

Children read the time on analogue clocks to the hour and half-hour, and they learn to recognise different coins and notes. In Year 2, children will use standard units more independently and gain experience in telling the time and doing simple calculations with money.

### Geometry: properties of shapes

In Year 1, children become familiar with a range of common 2D and 3D shapes, including rectangles, circles and triangles, cuboids, pyramids and spheres. They recognise these shapes in different orientations, sizes and contexts.

### Geometry: position and direction

Children continue to use positional language accurately when describing where people or objects are in the environment. They experience the differences between half, quarter and three-quarter turns by practising making these turns in a clockwise direction.

### Overview of progression in Year 2

### Number and place value

In Year 2, children develop their understanding of place value from Year 1, learning the place value of each digit in a two-digit number; for example, 23 means two tens and three ones. They begin to understand the use of 0 as a place holder. They will build on this when they consider place value in three-digit numbers in Year 3.

Children learn to count in 3s, which will help develop the concept of a third. They order numbers from 0 to 100 and use the <, > and = signs. They become more independent in partitioning numbers in different ways, and this helps to support their work in addition and subtraction.

### Addition and subtraction

Children use mental methods to solve problems using addition and subtraction, as well as using objects and pictorial representations. They begin to record addition and subtraction in columns, reinforcing their knowledge of place value. They independently use addition and subtraction facts to 20, and this helps them derive number facts up to 100, such as seeing the parallels between 2 + 6 = 8 and 20 + 60 = 80. They add and subtract different combinations of numbers, including two two-digit numbers. They understand the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction (that one operation undoes the other), and use this to check their calculations.

### Multiplication and division

In Year 2, children learn the 2, 5 and 10 multiplication tables, and use these facts in calculations. They recognise that multiplication and division have an inverse relationship, and begin to use the × and ÷ symbols. They learn that multiplication is commutative (2 × 10 is the same as 10 × 2) whereas division is not (10 ÷ 2 is not the same as 2 ÷ 10).

### Fractions

Children extend their understanding of fractions to 1/3 and 3/4 and learn that 1/2 is equivalent to 2/4. They read and write the symbols 1/2, 1/4 for example. As well as experimenting practically with fractions and connecting unit fractions to the concepts of sharing and grouping, they begin to write simple fractions, such as 1/4 of 8 = 2. They will develop this in Year 3 when they learn about tenths and begin to find out more about non-unit fractions.

### Measurement

Children learn to independently choose the appropriate standard units for a particular measurement and use a range of different measuring instruments. They recognise and use the £ and p symbols for money (but do not use mixed notation, such as £5.72), and undertake addition and subtraction using money. They learn to tell the time to 5 minutes, including quarter past and quarter to the hour.Children read the time on analogue clocks to the hour and half-hour, and they learn to recognise different coins and notes. In Year 2, children will use standard units more independently and gain experience in telling the time and doing simple calculations with money.

### Geometry: properties of shapes

By handling common 2D and 3D shapes (including quadrilaterals and cuboids, prisms, cones and polygons) children identify their properties, using the terms sides, edges, vertices and faces. They compare and sort shapes using their properties.

### Geometry: position and direction

Children experiment with making patterns using shapes and begin to use the concept of right angles to describe quarter, half and three-quarter turns. They will develop this concept further in Year 3.

### Statistics

Children are introduced to pictograms, tally charts, block diagrams and tables, using these to collate and compare information, and to ask and answer simple questions (for example, finding the number of items in a category, perhaps using one-to-many correspondence, or comparing different categories by quantity).

### Overview of progression in Year 3

### Number and place value

In Year 2, children learned about place value in two-digit numbers. In Year 3, they will extend their understanding to include the place value of three-digit numbers – for example, 232 is two hundreds, three tens and two ones. They learn to count in 4s, 8s, 50s and 100s, and work with numbers up to 1000. They begin to use estimation when dealing with number problems involving larger numbers.

### Addition and subtraction

In Year 3, children practise mentally adding and subtracting combinations of numbers, including three-digit numbers. When using written methods for addition and subtraction, children learn to write the digits in columns, using their knowledge of place value to align the digits correctly. Children begin to use estimation to work out the rough answer to calculations in advance, and use inverse operations to check their final answers – for example, checking 312 + 43 = 355 by working out 355 – 43 = 312.

### Multiplication and division

In Year 3, children learn the 3, 4 and 8 multiplication tables, and use their knowledge of doubling to explore links between the 2, 4 and 8 multiplication tables. They use facts from these new multiplication tables to solve multiplication and division problems. Building on their work with written mathematical statements in Year 2, they begin to develop more formal written ethods of multiplication and division. They will extend this in Year 4 when they work with more complex multiplication and division problems.

### Fractions

Building on work from Year 2, children learn about tenths, and confidently count up and down in tenths. They begin to make links between tenths and place value (ten units make a ten; ten tens make a hundred) and explore connections between tenths and decimal measures. Children extend their understanding of fractions to include more non-unit fractions (that is those with digits other than 1 as their numerator – for example, 1/5 is a unit fraction, and 2/5 is a non-unit fraction). They also begin to add and subtract fractions with the same denominator up to one whole, such as 3/5 + 3/5 = 4/5, 4/7 – 2/7 = 2/7.

### Measurement

Children will learn to tell the time from analogue 24-hour clocks as well as 12-hour clocks. They will move on to use digital 24-hour clocks in Year 4. They will extend their work on money from Year 2, including working out correct change. They will also learn to measure the perimeter of 2D shapes and solve addition and subtraction problems involving length, mass and volume./p>

### Geometry: properties of shapes

In Year 3, children begin to learn about angle as a property of shapes, and they connect the concept of angles with the idea of turning – for example, realising that two right angles equal a half-turn. They can identify whether a given angle is greater or less than a right angle (obtuse or acute). They can accurately describe lines as horizontal, vertical, perpendicular or parallel.

### Statistics

Children are introduced to pictograms, tally charts, block diagrams and tables, using these to collate and compare information, and to ask and answer simple questions (for example, finding the number of items in a category, perhaps using one-to-many correspondence, or comparing different categories by quantity).